|Mate||Stop and wait|
|Tori||The person performing a technique|
|Uke||The person the technique is being performed on|
|Katame Waza||Grappling techniques|
|Ne Waza||Ground techniques|
|Te Waza||Hand techniques|
|Koshi Waza||Hip techniques|
|Osei-komi-waza||Hold down techniques|
|Kansetsu waza||Joint locks techniques|
|Shime waza||Strangling techniques|
|Ukemi||Break your fall|
|Yoshi||Carry on (continue the contest)|
|Eri||Collar of uniform|
|Kaeshi Waza||Counter techniques|
|Ashi Waza||Foot techniques|
|Kata||Form or pattern|
|Randori||Free style practice (non-scripted)|
|Zori||Traditional Japanese slippers, originally made with a straw sole|
Ippon is the highest score in judo. A full throw in which a contestant throws his opponent to the mat with ‘considerable force and speed’ so the opponent lands ‘largely on his back’. An ippon is also awarded when a contestant immobilizes his opponent with a grappling hold-down for 20 seconds, or when an opponent gives up or passes out.
When the executed Nage-waza falls just short of an ‘Ippon’ in that it lacks one of the three Ippon requirements: ‘throwing the opponent to the floor onto his back with control’, ‘with force’, and ‘with speed’. Alternatively, when an Osae-komi-waza pin is maintained for 15 – 20 seconds.
Yuko and Koka
Originally, there were two additional scores in judo, called Yuko and Koka. Yuko used to be a level of score behind Waza-ari and Koka was worth less then Yuko, ultimately making it the lowest score at the time. Both scores were abolished almost a decade ago.
The ‘shido’ is called when a rule violation occurs during a judo contest. A shido is issued for minor violations such as excessive passivity, using a manoeuvre that hinders the development of a technique, using a technique that poses a risk injury to the opponent.
Shido on the score board will be displayed with a yellow card. A judoka can only be penalised a maximum of three times during a contest. The third shido will be announced as ‘hansoku-make’ which is direct disqualification.
The hansoku-make will be given to a judoka if they have committed a serious action against rules such as ‘waki-gatame’ from standing position or received their third and final penalty for minor violation.