Japanese English
Hajime To begin
Mate Stop and wait
Rei Bow
Tori The person performing a technique
Uke The person the technique is being performed on
Katame Waza Grappling techniques
Ne Waza Ground techniques
Te Waza Hand techniques
Koshi Waza Hip techniques
Osei-komi-waza Hold down techniques
Kansetsu waza Joint locks techniques
Shime waza Strangling techniques
Keiotsuke Attention
Obi Belt
Ukemi Break your fall
Yoshi Carry on (continue the contest)
Eri Collar of uniform
Kaeshi Waza Counter techniques
Sukasu Evasion
Ashi Foot
Ashi Waza Foot techniques
Kata Form or pattern
Randori Free style practice (non-scripted)
Maitta Give up
Kimono Judo uniform
Zori Traditional Japanese slippers, originally made with a straw sole
Numbers 1-10
Japanese English
Ichi One
Ni Two
San Three
Shi Four
Go Five
Roku Six
Nana Seven
Hachi Eight
Kyu Nine
Juu Ten

Judo Scores


Ippon is the highest score in judo. A full throw in which a contestant throws his opponent to the mat with ‘considerable force and speed’ so the opponent lands ‘largely on his back’. An ippon is also awarded when a contestant immobilizes his opponent with a grappling hold-down for 20 seconds, or when an opponent gives up or passes out. 


When the executed Nage-waza falls just short of an ‘Ippon’ in that it lacks one of the three Ippon requirements: ‘throwing the opponent to the floor onto his back with control’, ‘with force’, and ‘with speed’. Alternatively, when an Osae-komi-waza pin is maintained for 15 – 20 seconds.

Yuko and Koka

Originally, there were two additional scores in judo, called Yuko and Koka. Yuko used to be a level of score behind Waza-ari and Koka was worth less then Yuko, ultimately making it the lowest score at the time. Both scores were abolished almost a decade ago.


Judo Penalties  


The ‘shido’ is called when a rule violation occurs during a judo contest. A shido is issued for minor violations such as excessive passivity, using a manoeuvre that hinders the development of a technique, using a technique that poses a risk injury to the opponent.

Shido on the score board will be displayed with a yellow card. A judoka can only be penalised a maximum of three times during a contest. The third shido will be announced as ‘hansoku-make’ which is direct disqualification.


The hansoku-make will be given to a judoka if they have committed a serious action against rules such as ‘waki-gatame’ from standing position or received their third and final penalty for minor violation.